Cameras have been proven to substantially reduce red light violations. Institute Evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in Fairfax, Virginia, and Oxnard, California, showed that camera enforcement reduced red light running violations by nearly 40 percent. In addition to reducing red light running at camera-equipped sites, violation reductions in both communities carried over to signalized intersections not equipped with red light cameras, indicating community-wide changes in driver behavior. In addition to reducing red light violations, cameras have been shown to reduce intersection crashes. In Oxnard, California, significant citywide crash reductions followed the introduction of red light cameras, and injury crashes at intersections with traffic signals were reduced by 29 percent. Front-into-side collisions — the types of crashes most closely associated with red light violations— were reduced by 32 percent, and front-into-side crashes involving injuries were reduced by 68 percent. An Institute review of international red light camera studies concluded that cameras reduce red light violations by 40 to 50 percent and reduce injury crashes by 25 to 30 percent.